Field validation of the performance of paper-based tests for the detection of the Zika and chikungunya viruses in serum samplesby Margot Karlikow et al.
In low-resource settings, resilience to infectious disease outbreaks can be hindered by limited access to diagnostic tests. Here we report the results of double-blinded studies of the performance of paper-based diagnostic tests for the Zika and chikungunya viruses in a field setting in Latin America. The tests involved a cell-free expression system relying on isothermal amplification and toehold-switch reactions, a purpose-built portable reader and onboard software for computer vision-enabled image analysis. In patients suspected of infection, the accuracies and sensitivities of the tests for the Zika and chikungunya viruses were, respectively, 98.5% (95% confidence interval, 96.2–99.6%, 268 serum samples) and 98.5% (95% confidence interval, 91.7–100%, 65 serum samples) and approximately 2 aM and 5 fM (both concentrations are within clinically relevant ranges). The analytical specificities and sensitivities of the tests for cultured samples of the viruses were equivalent to those of the real-time quantitative PCR. Cell-free synthetic biology tools and companion hardware can provide de-centralized, high-capacity and low-cost diagnostics for use in low-resource settings.
This is the first report of mosquitoes infected with CHIKV in Iran. The high-throughput screening method here presented can be proposed as a novel epidemiological surveillance tool to identify circulating arboviruses and to support preparedness to an epidemic in animals and humans.
In this study, researchers provide the first demonstration of ZIKV accumulation in the saliva of Cx. pipiens upon forced infection. Nevertheless, they consider Cx. pipiens as a highly inefficient vector for ZIKV.
This analysis confirms the potential of Ae. albopictus as a bridge vector based on its colonization of natural breeding sites in newly invaded areas, its opportunistic feeding behaviour together with the preference for human blood, and the competence to transmit 14 arboviruses.
Survey on Non-Human Primates & Mosquitoes Does not Provide Evidences of Spillover/Spillback between the Urban & Sylvatic Cycles of YFV & ZIKV Following Severe Outbreaks in Southeast Brazilby de Abreu et al.
The present study showed that there is no evidence that the ZIKV established an independent sylvatic cycle in the state of Rio de Janeiro, and provided new evidence that there was no urban transmission of Yellow Fever Virus in southeast Brazil during the current outbreak.
Building on the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals commitment to “leave no one behind” and the recent championing of a need for a people-centered approach to epidemic preparedness and response, the authors call for more evidence that can support policy recommendations and advocacy efforts for gender-mainstreamed arbovirus control programs in Latin America.
In this study the authors' data provide a convenient and practicable solution to ensure robust differentiation of CHIKV- and MAYV-specific antibodies.
Findings in this study highlight the occurrence of the Fort Sherman virus (FSV) across a geographic range exceeding 7,000 km, surprising genomic conservation across a time span exceeding 50 years, M gene‐based reassortment events, and the existence of multiple animal hosts of FSV.
Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Population Risk of Congenital Microcephaly in Pernambuco State, Brazilby Alexander et al.
This study emphasizes the burden of microcephaly during the outbreak in Pernambuco, with estimates higher than in some previous studies, and with high risk in an inland region of the state for reasons which are yet to be clarified.
Study protocol for the multicentre cohorts of Zika virus infection in pregnant women, infants, and acute clinical cases in Latin America and the Caribbean: the ZIKAlliance consortiumby Avelino-Silva et al.
Results of large cohort studies will provide better risk estimates for birth defects and other developmental abnormalities associated with ZIKV infection including possible co-factors for the variability of risk estimates between other countries and regions. Additional outcomes include incidence and transmission estimates of ZIKV during and after pregnancy, characterization of short and long-term clinical course following infection and viral kinetics of ZIKV.
Based on vector competence data and vector distribution, the auhtors generate a prediction risk map for CHIKV stressing the fear of CHIKV and to a lesser extent, of other arboviruses for Europe, calling us for new public health strategies.
Results in this study stress the poor ability of Ae. albopictus to sustain a local transmission of ZIKV in Europe and provide a promising tool to evaluate the risk of ZIKV transmission in future outbreaks.
Management of insecticide resistance in the major Aedes vectors of arboviruses: Advances and challengesby Dusfour et al.
Based on a plan developed for malaria vectors, here the authors propose some key activities to establish a global plan for insecticide resistance management in Aedes species.
High specificity and sensitivity of Zika EDIII-based ELISA diagnosis highlighted by a large human reference panelby Denis et al.
Researchers developed a ZEDIII-based ELISA that can discriminate between past or current DENV and ZIKV infections, allowing the detection of a serological scar from other flaviviruses. This could be used to confirm exposure of pregnant women or to follow the spread of an endemic disease.
In this study, researchers confirmed the association of Anhanga virus (ANHV)‐related viruses with both extant two‐toed sloth species in the Choloepus genus across 3,000 km distance and half a century between the both detections.
In this study, researchers evaluated the propensity of Aedes aegypti to transmit mechanically Zika virus (ZIKV) using an experimental design.
Zika virus differentially infects human neural progenitor cells according to their state of differentiation and dysregulates neurogenesis through the Notch pathwayby Ferraris et al.
Results from this research show that the differentiation state of hNPCs is a significant factor contributing to the outcome of ZIKV infection and furthermore suggest that ZIKV infection might initiate early activation of the Notch pathway resulting in an abnormal differentiation process, implicated in ZIKV-induced brain injury.
Assessing the Potential Interactions between Cellular miRNA and Arboviral Genomic RNA in the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegyptiby Yen et al.
This study shows a broad picture of possible interactions between mosquito cellular miRNAs and the viral RNA of different genotypes/lineages of arboviruses, providing a list of mosquito cellular miRNAs candidates for experimental validations in future studies.
Since the ZIKV outbreak in Brazil in 2015, the scientific community has joined efforts to gather more information on the epidemiology, clinical features and pathogenicity of the virus. Here, you can read a summary of the most important advances made recently and the discussion of promising, innovative approaches to understand and control ZIKV infection.
This study offers an opportunity to strategically target surveillance and control programmes and thereby augment efforts to reduce arbovirus burden in human populations globally.
Data provided in this article add important insights into specific host cellular lipids that are likely associated with ZIKV replication and may serve as platform for antiviral strategy against ZIKV.
In this study, the authors determined the global proteomic profile of CHIKV and ZIKV infections in human skin fibroblasts using Stable Isotope Labelling by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC)-based mass-spectrometry analysis.
Results obtained in this study suggest that the local transmission of four arboviruses - dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), zika (ZIKV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses - by Ae. albopictus newly introduced in Morocco is a likely scenario.
In this study, researchers review recent developments in the understanding of the immune response, with an emphasis on the early antiviral immune response mediated by natural killer cells and emphasize their Janus-faced effects in the control of arbovirus infection and pathogenesis.
Recurrent recent arbovirus infections suggested by serologic data and unspecific symptoms highlight the need for exhaustive virologic testing.
Results from this study indicate a low ZIKV transmission by Ae. aegypti and Ae. polynesiensis tested from the Pacific region. These results were unexpected and suggest the importance of other factors especially the vector density, the mosquito lifespan or the large immunologically naive fraction of the population that may have contributed to the rapid spread of the ZIKV in the Pacific region during the 2013–2017 outbreak.
According to the authors of this study, mosquito control measures should remain focused on the mosquito Ae. aegypti which is also the vector of CHIKV and DENV, and much more research effort should be allocated to fill the knowledge gaps about this virus.
The structural proteins of epidemic and historical strains of Zika virus differ in their ability to initiate viral infection in human host cellsby Bos et al.
In this study researchers show that ZIKV containing BeH819015 structural proteins is much less efficient in cell-attachment leading to a reduced susceptibility ofepithelial A549 and neuronal SH-SY5Y cells to viral infection.
Recombinant Zika NS1 Protein Secreted from Vero Cells Is Efficient for Inducing Production of Immune Serum Directed against NS1 Dimerby Viranaicken et al.
The authors of this article demonstrated that recombinant ZIKV NS1 expressed in mammalian cells stably transduced with a lentiviral vector is suitable for inducing the production of specific antibody directed against NS1 oligomer. According to the authors, anti-ZIKV immune serum could be a great tool for the specific detection of secreted NS1 hexamer in human cells infected with ZIKV of African and Asia lineages, including contemporary epidemic strains.
Results from this study suggest that ZIKV has mechanisms to evade mosquito innate immunity and it is therefore important to understand virus-vector interactions and the implications they have on transmission.
In this study, the authors select examples of (re)emerging pathogenic arboviruses and explain the reasons for their emergence and different patterns of dispersal, focusing particularly on the mosquito vectors which are important determinants of arbovirus emergence. They also attempt to identify arboviruses likely to (re)emerge in the future.
African and Asian Zika virus strains differentially induce early antiviral responses in primary human astrocytesby Hamel et al.
This study describes for the first time the specific antiviral gene expression in infected primary human astrocytes, the major glial cells within the central nervous system.