Since the ZIKV outbreak in Brazil in 2015, the scientific community has joined efforts to gather more information on the epidemiology, clinical features and pathogenicity of the virus. Here, you can read a summary of the most important advances made recently and the discussion of promising, innovative approaches to understand and control ZIKV infection.
This study offers an opportunity to strategically target surveillance and control programmes and thereby augment efforts to reduce arbovirus burden in human populations globally.
In this study, the authors determined the global proteomic profile of CHIKV and ZIKV infections in human skin fibroblasts using Stable Isotope Labelling by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC)-based mass-spectrometry analysis.
Results obtained in this study suggest that the local transmission of four arboviruses - dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), zika (ZIKV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses - by Ae. albopictus newly introduced in Morocco is a likely scenario.
Recurrent recent arbovirus infections suggested by serologic data and unspecific symptoms highlight the need for exhaustive virologic testing.
Results from this study indicate a low ZIKV transmission by Ae. aegypti and Ae. polynesiensis tested from the Pacific region. These results were unexpected and suggest the importance of other factors especially the vector density, the mosquito lifespan or the large immunologically naive fraction of the population that may have contributed to the rapid spread of the ZIKV in the Pacific region during the 2013–2017 outbreak.
According to the authors of this study, mosquito control measures should remain focused on the mosquito Ae. aegypti which is also the vector of CHIKV and DENV, and much more research effort should be allocated to fill the knowledge gaps about this virus.
The structural proteins of epidemic and historical strains of Zika virus differ in their ability to initiate viral infection in human host cellsby Bos et al.
In this study researchers show that ZIKV containing BeH819015 structural proteins is much less efficient in cell-attachment leading to a reduced susceptibility ofepithelial A549 and neuronal SH-SY5Y cells to viral infection.
Recombinant Zika NS1 Protein Secreted from Vero Cells Is Efficient for Inducing Production of Immune Serum Directed against NS1 Dimerby Viranaicken et al.
The authors of this article demonstrated that recombinant ZIKV NS1 expressed in mammalian cells stably transduced with a lentiviral vector is suitable for inducing the production of specific antibody directed against NS1 oligomer. According to the authors, anti-ZIKV immune serum could be a great tool for the specific detection of secreted NS1 hexamer in human cells infected with ZIKV of African and Asia lineages, including contemporary epidemic strains.
Results from this study suggest that ZIKV has mechanisms to evade mosquito innate immunity and it is therefore important to understand virus-vector interactions and the implications they have on transmission.
In this study, the authors select examples of (re)emerging pathogenic arboviruses and explain the reasons for their emergence and different patterns of dispersal, focusing particularly on the mosquito vectors which are important determinants of arbovirus emergence. They also attempt to identify arboviruses likely to (re)emerge in the future.
African and Asian Zika virus strains differentially induce early antiviral responses in primary human astrocytesby Hamel et al.
This study describes for the first time the specific antiviral gene expression in infected primary human astrocytes, the major glial cells within the central nervous system.