Influence of Temperature on the Life-Cycle Dynamics of Aedes albopictus Population Established at Temperate Latitudes: A Laboratory Experimentby Marini et al.
Findings in this article highlight the ability of Aedes albopictus to quickly adapt to colder environments and provide new important insights on the bionomics of this species at temperate latitudes.
Zika virus transmission by Brazilian Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus is virus dose and temperature-dependentby Chouin-Carneiro et al.
Results indicate that Brazilian populations of Ae. aegypti exhibit a much higher transmission potential for ZIKV than Ae. albopictus.
Contrasted transmission efficiency of Zika virus strains by mosquito species Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus from Reunion Islandby Gomard et al.
Our results show that both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, from Reunion Island, are more likely to be competent for ZIKV in contrast to Cx. quinquefasciatus which appeared refractory to all tested ZIKV strains. This improves our understanding of the role of mosquito species in the risk of the ZIKV emergence on Reunion Island.
This is the first report of mosquitoes infected with CHIKV in Iran. The high-throughput screening method here presented can be proposed as a novel epidemiological surveillance tool to identify circulating arboviruses and to support preparedness to an epidemic in animals and humans.
The invasive Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus found in the Netherlands can experimentally transmit Zika virus and Usutu virusby Abbo et al.
Given that Ae. japonicus can experimentally transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) like ZIKV and USUV and is currently expanding its territories, we should consider this mosquito as a potential vector for arboviral diseases in Europe.
This analysis confirms the potential of Ae. albopictus as a bridge vector based on its colonization of natural breeding sites in newly invaded areas, its opportunistic feeding behaviour together with the preference for human blood, and the competence to transmit 14 arboviruses.
Building on the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals commitment to “leave no one behind” and the recent championing of a need for a people-centered approach to epidemic preparedness and response, the authors call for more evidence that can support policy recommendations and advocacy efforts for gender-mainstreamed arbovirus control programs in Latin America.
In this study the authors' data provide a convenient and practicable solution to ensure robust differentiation of CHIKV- and MAYV-specific antibodies.
Low vector competence in sylvatic mosquitoes limits Zika virus to initiate an enzootic cycle in South Americaby Fernandes et al.
These results suggest that genetically determined tissue barriers, especially in the midgut, play a vital role in inhibiting ZIKV for transmission in the tested sylvatic mosquito species. Thus, an independent enzootic transmission cycle for ZIKV in South America is very unlikely.
Study protocol for the multicentre cohorts of Zika virus infection in pregnant women, infants, and acute clinical cases in Latin America and the Caribbean: the ZIKAlliance consortiumby Avelino-Silva et al.
Results of large cohort studies will provide better risk estimates for birth defects and other developmental abnormalities associated with ZIKV infection including possible co-factors for the variability of risk estimates between other countries and regions. Additional outcomes include incidence and transmission estimates of ZIKV during and after pregnancy, characterization of short and long-term clinical course following infection and viral kinetics of ZIKV.
Management of insecticide resistance in the major Aedes vectors of arboviruses: Advances and challengesby Dusfour et al.
Based on a plan developed for malaria vectors, here the authors propose some key activities to establish a global plan for insecticide resistance management in Aedes species.
The authors present and show a new tool that can detect endemic and epidemic viruses in different mosquito species in an epidemic context. This fast and low-cost method can be suggested as a novel epidemiological surveillance tool to identify circulating arboviruses.
Combining genetic crosses and pool targeted DNA‐seq for untangling genomic variations associated with resistance to multiple insecticides in the mosquito Aedes aegyptiby Cattel et al.
This study provides a simple and cost‐effective approach to improve the specificity of resistance allele's detection in multi‐resistant populations while reducing false positives frequently arising when comparing populations showing divergent genetic backgrounds.
Stable distinct core eukaryotic viromes in different mosquito species from Guadeloupe, using single mosquito viral metagenomicsby Shi et al.
In this article, the authors applied their optimized viral metagenomics protocol (NetoVIR) to compare the virome of single and pooled Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected from different locations in Guadeloupe, in 2016 and 2017.
The authors of this study review the mosquito and vertebrate host species potentially involved in ZIKV vector-borne transmission worldwide; provide an evidence-supported analysis regarding the possibility of ZIKV spillback from an urban cycle to a zoonotic cycle outside Africa; and review hypotheses regarding recent emergence and evolution of ZIKV.
Results obtained in this study suggest that the local transmission of four arboviruses - dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), zika (ZIKV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses - by Ae. albopictus newly introduced in Morocco is a likely scenario.
Results from this study indicate a low ZIKV transmission by Ae. aegypti and Ae. polynesiensis tested from the Pacific region. These results were unexpected and suggest the importance of other factors especially the vector density, the mosquito lifespan or the large immunologically naive fraction of the population that may have contributed to the rapid spread of the ZIKV in the Pacific region during the 2013–2017 outbreak.
According to the authors of this study, mosquito control measures should remain focused on the mosquito Ae. aegypti which is also the vector of CHIKV and DENV, and much more research effort should be allocated to fill the knowledge gaps about this virus.
The findings of this study have implications for the development of multifaceted infection control programs, including strategies for prevention and awareness, helping the population to develop an accurate perception of the threat they are facing and encouraging behavior changes.
The authors of this study found that Culex quinquefasciatus does not support ZIKV replication and Wolbachia is not involved in producing this phenotype. These mosquitoes are therefore very unlikely to play a role in transmission of ZIKV.
Insecticide resistance is mediated by multiple mechanisms in recently introduced Aedes aegypti from Madeira Island (Portugal)by Seixas et al.
This study showed the up-regulation of several detoxification genes of multiple enzyme families associated with metabolic resistance, and the presence of the two kdr mutations, with the F1534C being fixed. Another suggested mechanism probably involved in the resistance phenotype is cuticle thickening, as several cuticle genes were found overexpressed. This study reinforces the importance of alternative control strategies to suppress Ae. aegypti population and thus reduce the likelihood of arbovirus transmission in the region.
In this study, the authors select examples of (re)emerging pathogenic arboviruses and explain the reasons for their emergence and different patterns of dispersal, focusing particularly on the mosquito vectors which are important determinants of arbovirus emergence. They also attempt to identify arboviruses likely to (re)emerge in the future.