Until the end of 2017, Brazil notified the highest number of infections caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the Americas. We investigated a large CHIKV outbreak in Boa vista municipality in the Brazilian Amazon region. Rapid portable genome sequencing of 20 novel isolates and subsequent genetic analysis revealed that ECSA lineage was introduced from northeastern Brazil to Roraima around July 2016. Epidemiological analyses suggest a basic reproductive number of R0 of 1.66, which suggests that approximately 39% of Roraima’s population was infected with CHIKV-ECSA. Given the dominance of the CHIKV-Asian genotype in the Americas, our data highlights the rapid spread of a less understood and poorly characterized CHIKV-ECSA genotype in Brazil. Investigations on potential associations between public health impact of CHIKV and genetic diversity of circulating strains are warranted to better evaluate its impact in Brazil and beyond.