In this study, by adding 13 new full ZIKAV genome sequences, isolated from different places in the Pacific region and at different periods of time, along with other published genomes, the authors provide for the first time a map of the whole ZIKAV Pacific sublineage, from the Western to the Eastern edges of the Pacific ocean.
In order to understand the mechanism of Zika virus-associated microcephaly, the authors combined analysis of human fetuses infected with Zika virus, cultures of human neuronal stem cells and mice embryos. They showed that ZIKV infection of cortical progenitors controlling neurogenesis triggers a stress in the endoplasmic reticulum in the embryonic brain, inducing signals in response to incorrect protein con-formation.
The authors performed an experimental oral infection with the Asian genotype of ZIKV in Ae. albopictus from La Réunion and found a strong midgut barrier to dissemination. This result is discussed in the light of previous vector competence assays for DENV and CHIKV performed on other Ae. albopictus populations from La Réunion.
High Zika Virus Seroprevalence in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil Limits the Potential for Further Outbreaksby Netto et al.
In this article, authors find that the high burden of Zika virus infection in a northeastern Brazilian metropolis questions the fate of the outbreak due to population protective immunity; that Zika virus infection predominantly affects geographic areas with low socioeconomic status, demonstrating a clear link between poverty and Zika virus infection; and, finally, additional evidence for the link between Zika virus infection and microcephaly.
High Zika Virus Seroprevalence in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil Limits the Potential for Further Outbreaks [Press Release]by ZIKAlliance
A study published this week in mBio demonstrates rapid spread of ZIKV in Salvador, a metropolis in northeastern Brazil representing one of the most affected areas during the American ZIKV outbreak, and infection rates exceeding 60%.
In 2015–2016 in the Recife Metropolitan Region, the authors of this study detected the tail end of a Zika epidemic, which was displaced by a chikungunya epidemic. Few dengue cases were identified despite a high number of official dengue notifications in the area during this period. This study shows here important epidemiological features of these cases.
In order to overcome potential technological issues related to the study of arboviruses, the authors of this study designed an improved DNA transfection protocol for insect cells and then demonstrated that the simple and flexible ISA (Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons) reverse-genetics method can be efficiently applied to both mammalian and mosquito cells to generate in days recombinant infectious positive-stranded RNA viruses belonging to genera Flavivirus (Japanese encephalitis, Yellow fever, West Nile and Zika viruses) and Alphavirus (Chikungunya virus).
The authors of this study developed novel multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCRs. The new PCRs enable yellow fever (YFV) detection with diagnostic sensitivity. Although the dual-target assay is superior to the single-target assay in sensitivity and robustness to target competition, the single-target assay – as stated by the researchers – may be advantageous in resource-limited settings and may be more convenient for multiplex usage in combination with assays targeting co-circulating arboviruses, such as chikungunya, Zika, and dengue viruses.
Results from this study suggest that ZIKV has mechanisms to evade mosquito innate immunity and it is therefore important to understand virus-vector interactions and the implications they have on transmission.
During the European Congress on Tropical Medicine and International Health (ECTMIH) conference in Antwerp, the three EU-funded Zika Consortia, ZIKAlliance, ZIKAction and ZikaPLAN organized a joint symposium, with an afternoon of presentations packed with up-to-date science regarding ZIKV on October 17th.
First outbreak of Zika virus in the continental United States: a modelling analysis. A commentary from the authors.by ZIKAlliance
Marini et al provide a short commentary on their research article First outbreak of Zika virus in the continental United States: a modelling analysis published in September 2017 in Eurosurveillance. This was supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under ZIKAlliance Grant Agreement no. 734548.
ClearColi BL21(DE3)-based expression of Zika virus antigens illustrates a rapid method of antibody production against emerging pathogensby Viranaicken et al.
The remarkable efficacy of the ClearColi BL21(DE3)-based expression system at eliciting the rapid production of specific anti-ZIKV antibodies endorses an innovative method, which can be extended to emerging viruses for which development of immunological tools is an urgent prerequisite.
Evidence for congenital Zika virus infection from neutralizing antibody titers in maternal sera, north-eastern Brazilby Moreira-Soto et al.
Results from this study suggest that despite the inter-individual variability in immune responses, the magnitude of the maternal ZIKV-specific neutralizing antibody response may prove useful to corroborate congenital ZIKV infection, contributing to reliable estimates of the manifestation index of ZIKV-associated congenital disease. Further studies will be needed to evaluate the time-course of maternal neutralizing antibody responses to identify whether a high maternal PRNT titer can be used as an early marker of congenital infection aiding potential antiviral intervention strategies.
In this work, the authors analysed the transmission dynamics of the Wynwood outbreak, recorded in Florida at the end of July 2016, using a mathematical model calibrated to outbreak data, and assessed the efficacy of the implemented vector control measures in containing viral transmission. Results from this analysis provide useful insights for prevention and control of possible future outbreaks in European areas.
In this letter, the authors address the need for curation and standardized annotation of ZIKV reference genomes in order to guide researchers and clinicians in genomic analyses and the translation of research findings.